Friday, January 24, 2014
GROW VEGETABLES IN CONTAINERS
There are 6 major considerations in container gardening:
1. How much sun is available?
Choose plants according to how much sun or shade they’ll get each day. Most vegetables need at least 6
hours every day. Leafy vegetables, such as lettuce, onions, carrots and beets will do okay in partial shade.
But plants that bear fruit such as tomatoes, eggplant, squash, peppers need full sun (at least 6 hours).
2. What type of container?
Almost any container will do as long as it has good drainage. Smaller containers dry out very quickly in
summer. The smallest for outdoor use is probably 8 to 12 inches in diameter. In part shade you may have
success with smaller containers. If you are using recycled containers, scrub them well and rinse in a
solution of 9 parts water to one part bleach. If containers are porous (clay, wood, cement) soak them well
in water before filling so they won’t act like sponges and pull all the water out of your soil.
Since roots are above ground, they’re more sensitive to temperature extremes. Midsummer heat can fry
tiny, hair like feeder roots. Without these feeder roots, the plant will wilt even if the soil is wet. Then
larger roots become very susceptible to root rot fungus that can destroy the rest of the plant. Overheating
of the soil is a common cause of failure in container plantings. Thick wood insulates best, dark colored
containers will absorb more heat, light colored containers reflect heat.
Leafy vegetable and herbs don’t need as much room, but use a pot at least 9 inches deep so you don’t have to water as often. Vegetables with extensive root systems such as cucumbers, potatoes, squash and tomatoes need containers with a minimum depth of 16 inches. Remember, the bigger the pot, the bigger the yield. An additional 2 inches deep can more than double your harvest.
3. Preparation of the soil.
Do not use garden soil! It may contain diseases and fungi and is usually very heavy and slow to drain.
Buy a high quality soil mix that is sterilized, and able to absorb moisture and drain quickly.
4. Fertilizing. A must!
Plants trapped in containers cannot search for nutrients with their roots. Confined root systems demand
frequent light fertilizing in summer. Nutrients are leached from the soil with every watering and need to be
replenished regularly. Two to four weeks after planting begin applying a water soluble fertilizer mixed half
strength. Continue to apply fertilizer every two to three weeks unless you supplement the soil with a slow
Organic gardeners can use liquid fish emulsion, liquid kelp or blood or bone meal.
You will find 3 numbers on the fertilizer package that explain what the fertilizer is formulated to do. The
numbers are always in the following order:
Nitrogen - is for green leaves Phosphorus – is for flowers and fruit Potassium – is for root growth
When one of the numbers is higher than the others, that means the fertilizer is designed to promote growth
in that specific part of the plant.
Do not overfeed. A little is good, a lot is NOT better!
5. Watering requirements.
All containers dry out quickly, but watering requirements will vary according to the season, type of
container, soil mix and exposure. To be safe, check containers daily. Stick your finger into the top inch of
soil. If it feels damp there is no immediate need to water. If it feels dry then you should water until some
runs out the bottom of the container.
In mid summer and on windy days this can be a daily job. In summer provide a saucer that can fill with
water and be absorbed more slowly. In winter remove the saucer so the plants don’t sit in water and
Water early in the morning to avoid wet leaves at night when temperatures drop and mildew and disease
organisms flourish. Use a slow even spray to avoid washing out the soil.
6. What should you plant?
Shallow rooted crops like herbs, lettuce, green onions, radishes and spinach are easy to grow.
Carrots, potatoes, turnips and other roots crops are simple as long as you have a container that’s deep
enough. Choose a container that’s twice as deep as the length they’ll reach at maturity. Tall or sprawling
vegetables have extensive root systems (eggplant, peppers, squash and tomatoes). They will bear well if
they have enough room for roots to develop.
To get the most out of your limited space, choose high yielding and dwarf varieties with moderate to
standard sized fruit. These include beans, beets, carrots, lettuce, peppers, radishes and some varieties of
summer squash and tomatoes. Stay away from varieties labeled “whopper”. Look for bushy rather than
vining plants. For the highest yield provide support for vining or trailing crops and add the stakes or trellis
when you first plant the seeds or transplants so that you won’t damage roots by adding them at a later date.
Seeds or Transplants?
Plant beans, beets, carrots, lettuce, peas and radishes from seed. Cucumber, eggplant, tomatoes and squash
are best purchased from transplants. Buy the smallest size available (6 packs if possible). They will
develop better roots and larger sizes are not worth the extra cost.